Bronze age

From 1800 B.C. Bronze Age begins , where technological change that marks its beginning is copper alloy with tin , creating bronze.

As general features of this stage we can say that occurs:

  • A gradual replacement by metal flint weapons and utensils.
  • Top jewelry.
  • New ceramic forms appear .
  • Changes in burials ; collective burial passes individually.
  • Greater trade.
  • Economic changes , with the emergence of a hierarchical society .

During the Bronze Age intense occupation of the northeastern foothills of the Montes de Toledo it is produced, documenting different villages nestled at an altitude of between 850 meters and 1,000 meters. They are situated on quartzite outcrops as a slightly amesetadas platforms, from which the river valleys, especially Algodor, Amarguillo, Cedena, Pusa and Guajaraz visually dominate.

Height villages are characterized by a marked defensive character, with difficult access, important strategic control of territory, exploitation of resources of the area and adapt to the topography. The occupation of the territory, is mainly due to the use of sources and waterways as well as the exploitation of mineral resources of copper. This model of occupation complements the settlement pattern in plain, where small natural elevations prey along water courses.


In the region Montes de Toledo Bronze many settlements where we can highlight those located in are located:

  • Marjaliza, where they have documented three sites in the Bronze Age all located in height. They are characterized by being located in a quartzite spur significant natural and artificial defenses, highlighting the important visual control of the territory.
  • Mazarambroz, the walled town of El Castrejon. It has an elongated shape to adapt to the orographic conditions of the Sierra del Castañar, characterized by the presence of two parallel lines of quartzite outcrops in the higher elevations, representing the northern and southern boundaries of the settlement. The main visible feature of the site is to present powerful closure structures, especially to the West, since the area more accessible. On this side they have been documented three consecutive walled enclosures in an excellent state of preservation. They are made of quartzite from the area willing dry. These structures associated with ceramic fragments made by hand with mineral temper thick and a well dug into the rock in the NE part appear.
  • The Sierra de Layos, with an attached to the Bronze Plenary and with an important visual control over large areas of the plain stretching between the Montes de Toledo and the Tagus valley village. Have documented fragments of pottery decorated with handmade lace and fingerings, remains of pots and conical vessels.

Associated with this settlement in height is the so-called post-Paleolithic schematic art, art prehistoric art.

This artistic phenomenon, is located in huts and outdoor shelters, using a range of colors such as ocher, red and fewer black, yellow or white. These colors are applied with a single trace of any figure or, exceptionally, limits the outer contour.

The represented subjects are human and animal figures, with geometric patterns, which are grouped around a number of types; anthropomorphic, zoomorphic, idols, etc., with a large schematic character difficult to interpret.

The most important examples of this art in the Montes de Toledo, we can mention the municipalities of Mora and Los Yébenes, where traces have been found of these artistic representations in shelters and caves. Highlights the cave paintings of Las Zorretas, where they have documented fifty schematic art figures, all more or less intense red pigments, according to condition and extent of absorption.

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