Windmills start working in Spain from the Middle Ages and are usually located on the outskirts of the villages on hills or slopes to catch the wind.
Before the invention of the waterwheel, flour mills hand mills were little moved by animal or human power in which a large amount of energy is wasted.
They consist of a cylindrical masonry building ending in a conical roof initially built of straw and wood and later in zinc, and usually are whitewashed.
The windmills will consist of three plants called:
- Silo: In which is the spiral staircase for access to other plants and that millers left the mules.Wardroom: The average stay where grain cleaning is performed and where the canvases of the blades and grinding utensils are kept.The Moledero: What is the top floor which is accessed by a staircase and the two millstones and the mechanisms that drive the capstone for the transmission of wind power is contained. In it, they lie ventaculos whose function is to detect, by observing the prevailing wind miller. In this plant the axis of the blades and the "pinwheel" rotating with them is also found as abroad are the four united blades rectangular shape with a lattice of sticks where the fabrics that reflect the force support wind.
The town where these devices are more numerous and emblematic is Consuegra, wherein each of the mills has its own name and history.
Table windmills preserved in the region, either completely or any of its structures are listed:
|Municipio||Number of Windmillso|
|Las Ventas con Peña Aguilera||1|
They were used until the mid-twentieth century, and arise in order to apply the driving force of water to a grinding mechanism by a waterwheel.
They have a type that varies depending on the hydrographic and topographic conditions of its location.
They are rectangular buildings with mampostrería socket and mud walls mampostrería in some cases and in others, usually whitewashed. The roof is gabled with curved tiles.
The buildings are usually two floors around a central unit that is molineda room, where two stones, called volandera mobile and fixed hearth was located. The water inlet to the mill rotates a wheel that is generally horizontal, the water wheel, which has a series of curved vanes. This wheel is attached by a shaft to the runner wheel will perform molineda when moving over the floor. At other times the wheel can be vertical, and most often is placed outside the building.
Attached to this room, stables for animals, warehouses and the miller's house were.
In addition to the mill building, there are other elements of the system: canals that channel the water brought in and out of the mill, effective and socaz (which divert water when to let dry), the spillway, dams, hub and the raft, which can store water to produce artificially and the energy needed to transform jump.
This architectural element is very common in the Toledo lands as exist or have existed in almost every town, highlighting some localities as Menasalbas, San Pablo de los Montes and Hontanar, where they proliferate thanks to the favorable conditions of its rivers and streams.
|Municipio||Number of Mills Hydraulic|
|San Martín de Montalbán||5|
|San Martín de Pusa||1|
|San Pablo de los Montes||16|
|Santa Ana de Pusa||3|
|Villarejo de Montalbán||5|
Is a type of very similar to the water mills, based on a mechanism built of wood, in which a wheel turns, thanks to the hydropower construction with several cams on its axis, drives a large mallets falling rhythmically on a ramming the material surface, which normally was tissues.
The container where the panels are made is called stack and contains fuller liquor, which initially contained urine, hot water and fuller's earth and then the soap dissolved in hot water was used gave better results.
On the top of the stack ran some small channels through which circulate the water needed for cooling the fabrics and prevent deteriorate by heating.
There are also fulling of gunpowder similar to cloths or pile machinery.
Fulling remains are preserved only in Menasalbas, but would be very common in the past because of the importance that these lands were in the production of cloth. This is the case of Ajofrín, in the eighteenth century had a clap of sixteen decks and eight stacks driven by four horses.