The War of Independence (1808-1814) , convulsive period in our history , marks the beginning of the Contemporary Age in Spain . The invasion of Napoleon's armies pretending to invade Portugal and the kidnapping of the Spanish royal family in Bayonne to place on the throne of Spain to a brother of the Emperor Napoleon, was a legal vacuum power among the Spaniards who do not accept the imposition by the force an intruder authority. This moves them to organize themselves spontaneously at first creating a Policy Boards , and then initiating a process of popular rebellion in many of the towns and cities did not hesitate to take up arms against Napoleon's troops.
For the city of Toledo, ancient Own Montes served as a refuge and its inhabitants along the Peninsula was targeting protect and defend the guerrilla bands that were born under it.
There are material elements of this war in the Montes de Toledo, except the destruction of some files and causing material damage in some populations. The damage was moral, physical and economic. But the scenario remains almost intact and is an invitation to contemplate to understand this place of refuge and border, natural strength and space to defend the patriotic values.
Toledo is one of the first Spanish cities to protest against the French. Powerlessness and occupation by the troops of General Dupont cause the common history. He was of Moorish Toledo for about uprisings against Cordoba caliphs and were later known as a place of refuge for those fleeing different circumstances, or needed shelter until the twentieth century.
Montes de Toledo hosted the first known groups of bandits called golfines border organized gangs harassed the settlers whose reaction was the birth of the first self-defense groups known brotherhoods.
These natural contrasts between landscapes were tormented and relaxing place to host also contenders wars and communities, and centuries later patriots against the French invaders. This natural fortress nestled in the center regrettable acts of violence and to the output of this when the Superior Board of Toledo is created, a city living intense days of patriotism trying to organize a resistance which make it possible to create a front to repel the invader .
After heavy defeats, the Spanish armies are severely damaged and in disarray. In Toledo the French administration is organized and is in the region of Montes de Toledo where guerrilla groups Patriots are willing to harass the French army and take such actions serve to weaken the forces of the invader.
The route runs through stages where I operate the guerrillas, some are urban and other natural scenic beauty.
Noez lived Francisco Antonio River, old retired lieutenant, who was distinguished for his "friendship" with the French as a spy and saving patriots and even the general Wellington (English duke named supreme commander of the Spanish army). Later we find Menasalbas where it was natural Claudio de la Escalera, old retired colonel who organized a major departure attacking small French detachments made raids in the region. With this guerrilla also acted Luis Casanas, Toledo distinguished patriot who fled to the mountains and later to Seville where it was under the command of the Central Board.
Almonacid de Toledo, a town about 20 kilometers southwest of Toledo, General Venegas concentrated his convinced of the possibility of defeating the French army. At dawn on August 11, 1809 the French general Sebastiani attacked the Spanish troops waged an intense battle known as the "Battle of Almonacid". After the defeat, the Spanish armies barely managed to rally his men and an orderly retreat to the castle of Mora. On the battlefield they were about a thousand dead, nearly two hundred injured and some four thousand prisoners.
One of the most famous fighters of the Montes de Toledo Ventura Jimenez was known as the "Hero of the Tagus", who as a tiller of Mora left his job to organize one of the first monteñas items under the authority of the Supreme Central Junta, who would He granted the right to legally organize his departure under the command of Colonel José Gonzalez de la Torre. After the battle of Almonacid, intervened in the release of Spanish prisoners in the Ermita de la Virgen de la Oliva.
He threw Toledo threatening proclamations to cooperate with the French and their merits were recognized by the Central Board. He was injured when attacking with his cavalry San Martin Bridge in Toledo. Retired to his departure for Navahermosa he made a will in this town and was admitted to Los Navalucillos where he died a few days later. In May 2008, coinciding with the Bicentennial of the War of Independence, Navahermosa raised a monolith in homage to the fighters in the Montes de Toledo.
Navahermosa propose route to Los Navalucillos and passing through Los Navalmorales Baldomero Torres remember other heroes of the guerrilla, also of Mora, who served with the regular army in the battle of Rioseco and actions such as Medellin, Don Benito, Puerto Miravete, .Intentó rearrange some items in the Montes de Toledo, being arrested in Los Navalmorales. He was taken to France, chained and locked in a castle from where he escaped to return to Spain and join the guerrillas. He ended the War of Independence with the rank of Commander and awarded the Distinguished Cross of San Fernando.
In the eastern part of the region through which pass the roads of Cordoba and Seville, the guerrilla acted Isidoro Mir, clerk by profession born in Consuegra. Among his exploits are several attacks on the French in this area, having taken prisoner to a Bonapartist general. He organized a small body known as "Hunters of Africa" composed of about three hundred guerrillas who fought the enemy in the way of Seville by Los Yebenes and elsewhere in the province.
They stressed in this eastern area of the Montes de Toledo, the actions of Francisco Abad "Chaleco", Francisco Sanchez "Francisquete" Manuel Adame "The Locho".
The guerrilla units in the Montes de Toledo remained active from 1808-1814 and defended the natural bastion forming the Montes de Toledo also served as a refuge to the army, the authorities and representatives of the Central Board and the Toledo Church operating from hiding or managing the guerrilla movement from within. Most of the guerrillas were dissolved after the departure of King Intruder and its players regained their daily activities civilians, some with military rank, others remained in the army and a few chose the mountain giving rise to banditry nineteenth century in the Mountains Toledo.